How monocytes work in the body (2023)

monocytesthey are a guyleukocyte(leukocytes), which plays an important roleimmune systemAbility to destroy invaders such as viruses, bacteria and fungi. Monocytes are formed in the bone marrow and released into the blood. They can also help kill infected cells and help heal and repair the body.

Certain health conditions can cause you to have too few or too many monocytes. for example onehigh monocyte countin a blood test can occur with certain infections or cancers of the blood. It can also be a sign of stress.

This article covers the types of monocytes and their functions. It also covers a variety of health conditions that can cause monocytes in your blood to be too high or too low.

Monocytes and other types of white blood cells

types of monocytes

Researchers used to think that the main job of monocytes was to sense the environment and replenish the tissue pool.macrophagesand dendritic cells, which are two other types of white blood cells.

We now know that different types of monocytes have unique markers or protein markers on their exterior. These different types of monocytes work differently in the body.

The three types of human monocytes are:

  • classic monocytesthey make up about 80% of the total monocyte population in the body.
  • The remaining 20% ​​can be classified as based on their protein brandsnon-classical monocytesointermediate monocytes.

Why is my white count low?

The role of the different types of monocytes in the immune system has not yet been clarified. We know much more about mouse monocytes than we do about human monocytes.

"Inflammatories" and "anti-inflammatories" also apply to human monocytes. When these terms are applied to them, they are based on the protein (or receptor) tags found outside of these cells.

However, we don't know exactly what proportion of monocytes in humans can move well enough to move in and out of body tissues. Research suggests that some monocytes can "eat" (swallow) and digest (phagocytose) invaders without actively promoting inflammation.

What is the normal range for monocytes?

The normal range of monocytes in healthy adults is 4% to 8%. The normal range for the absolute number of monocytes is 200 to 800 per cubic millimeter.

However, the laboratory that processes your blood sample may use different intervals to report your monocyte count. If you are not sure if your levels are normal, see your doctor.

(Video) What is Monocytosis? and its Causes and Treatment ........

What is a normal WBC?

monocyte functions

Monocytes are formed in thebone marrow, are then released into the blood, where they circulate for several days.

Monocytes are best known for their role as "backup forces" in the body, as they can be called upon to form the progenitors (progenitors) of two other types of white blood cells: tissue macrophages and dendritic cells. Monocytes also have other roles in infections and diseases.

What do Langerhans (dendritic) cells do?

monocytes in the spleen

Large numbers of human monocytes migrate to the body's tissues, where they help produce macrophages that fight infection and remove dead cells.

obasishas all the main types of mononuclearphagocytestherein, including macrophages, dendritic cells and monocytes. The spleen is an active site for theinnate immune system.

The function of the spleen

Monocytes and innate immunity

innate immunity isimmunityYou were born with it. It's not the same as the goal.Immunity you get from a vaccineor after recovering from an infectious disease. The innate immune system works differently, evenphagocyticand inflammation.

Macrophages can use phagocytosis, a process by which they "eat" (swallow) and destroy debris and invaders. They can also "remove" old, worn-out red blood cells through this process.

Macrophages in the spleen clean up debris and old blood cells, but they also helpT lymphocytesrecognize foreign intruders - what is calledAntigenPresentation.

Antigen presentation is where the innate immune system ends and theacquired or learned immune responsefor a particular foreign invader.

Macrophages and your immune system

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fight infections

Some monocytes become Macrophages in tissues behave like Pac-Man, gobbling up bacteria, viruses, debris, and any infected or diseased cells.

Compared to T cells, macrophages are more available to recognize and attack a new threat. They can do this simply by sitting in their usual spot on the body or moving quickly to a site of inflammation where they are needed to fight infection.

Other monocytes transform into dendritic cells in the tissues, where they work with T lymphocytes. Macrophages can also present antigens to T cells. However, dendritic cells are considered the "experts" for this task. They collect debris from the breakdown of bacteria, viruses, and other foreign material and present it to T cells for viewing and mounting an immune response against invaders.

Like macrophages, dendritic cells can present antigens to T cells in a given context, as if to say, "Do you think we should do more about this?"

What do T cells do?

Associated terms

if you have onecomplete blood count (CBC)Blood test with division of the different cells (differential count) The monocytes of the white blood cells are counted and the number is given. You will also see what percentage of your total white blood cells are monocytes.

  • monocytosesthere is an increase in monocytes. Bacterial, fungal, or viral infections can cause an increase in monocytes. It can also be a stress reaction. High monocyte counts can also be caused by a problem withblood cell production. Malignant tumors, such as certain types of leukemia, can also cause elevated monocyte counts.
  • monocitopeniais a low number of monocytes. it can happen laterchemotherapybecause your total white blood cell count is low.

How to understand your blood test results

Researchers are still learning, but they believe that monocytes may also be involved in certain diseases in humans, including microbial infection,Shock, organ damage,osteoporosis,cardiovascular disease,Metabolic diseases, zAutoimmune diseases.

Monocytes in Listeria

Listeria monocytogenesis a type of bacteria that can cause listeriosis, a type of food poisoning. Listeria precautions are one of several during pregnancy, as Listeria can cause meningitis in the newborn, as well as miscarriage. Pregnant women are often advised not to eat soft cheeses, which may contain Listeria.

Monocytes can help fight infection, but they can also become "Trojan horses," carrying bacteria to the brain. When Listeria invades monocytes, the cells are unable to kill the bacteria and multiply.

What is Listeria?

(Video) How do Immune Cells (Macrophages) Engulf Bacteria Phagocytosis Process

monocytes in leukemia

If the cell line that produces monocytes is disrupted, the cells can lose control of making copies of themselves.

Acute monocytic leukemia is a form ofacute myeloid leukemia. In this type, more than 80% of the diseased cells are monocytes.

emchronic myelomonocytic leukemia(CMML) there is an increase in the number of monocytes and immature blood cells in the bone marrow and circulating in the blood.

What are the causes of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS)?

Monocytes in lymphoma and other cancers

Monocytes can have effects related to tumors and the cancerous behavior of white blood cells called lymphocytes. These disorders are known as lymphoproliferative disorders.

The presence of macrophages and their activities in tumors have been linked to the ability of tumor cells to establish and invade a blood supply and migrate through the bloodstream.Knowing this could help researchers develop cancer therapies that target macrophages to prevent metastasis and tumor growth.

Some providers use the absolute monocyte count as an indicator of risk or worseforecastbefore treating cancer patients.

For example, an increase in the number of monocytes above a certain threshold is associated with worse outcomes in patients with T-cell lymphoma andmorbus hodgkin.

The lymphocyte to monocyte ratio can also help identify high-risk patients in general.B cell lymphomaand untreatedmetastaticcolon cancer.

What are myeloid cells?


Monocytes are a type of white blood cell. The function of monocytes is to be involved in the immune system. Monocytes are also associated with certain diseases, including cancer. You can determine if your monocyte levels are too high or too low with a blood test.

frequent questions

  • Are monocytes rich in COVID-19?

    (Video) How The Immune System ACTUALLY Works – IMMUNE

    Infections can cause monocytes to multiply. Some people with viral illnesses like COVID may have higher levels of white blood cells, including monocytes.

    Learn more:White blood cells and COVID

  • What does monocytopenia mean?

    Monocytopenia means you have fewer monocytes in your blood than normal.

  • What does monocytosis mean?

    Monocytosis means that the number of monocytes in the blood is higher than normal.

White blood cell count and cancer

(Video) What Does It Mean If Your Monocyte Levels Are High? | Tita TV


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